Reading notations in Schaefer’s binders (RRDP)


Some conversations I’m seeing linking to my earlier blog post (now superseded by our ANS blog post) on various discussion boards are expressing confusion over how to read Schaefer’s work.  Here’s a quick guide to those new to his project and it will give you some idea of what is ahead for the work of the RRDP project as we engage in transcription and number crunching.  We’ve erred on releasing as much data as soon as possible rather than holding back until it is “complete” as that work may take a very long time indeed.


  1. These are die names assigned by Schaefer
  2. These parallel lines record a die link
  3. Often on the pages you will see drawings or verbal descriptions of Schaefer’s observations of key die features
  4. If the image source recorded a weight it is noted on the bottom of the image between reverse and obverse: look for the g.
  5. If the image source recorded a die axis it will be represented by an arrow near the weight.
  6. The image source is recorded in abbreviated form at the top center of the image.  These abbreviations are sometimes obvious at least to some of us more experienced numismatists but some are really puzzles.  We’re working with Schaefer to develop a key (see below), but this is still incomplete.  So above BMCRR 1287 is easily found in the BM online collection. Likewise NAC 61, lot 1145 is easily found on coin archives.  MacCabe’s collection is on Flickr.  Rauch is another auction and the A stands for Ailly so that’s in Paris….

This is a really rough guide.  As we get more questions and start to know what our users need Dr. Carbone and I will develop a proper finding aid and guidelines for the ANS site.  MY personal website is always just a sandbox, not an authoritative resource.

This post also has a sequel in which I answer questions about specific RRC types for which individuals have not been able to easily find.

Working list of Schaefer’s common abbreviations

If an abbreviation is NOT on this list and you cannot decode it please send me a hi res screen shot and link to specific page and I will investigate and try to help.  Your asking will improve this list for future generations.  yarrow [at] brooklyn [dot] cuny [dot] edu.

Axx = Auctiones auction xx(run by M&M, Basel)

AB = Peus 322(1Nov88) Coll. A. Banti

AM = McCabe Coll.

A+C = Aureo + Calico

ANE = Asociacion Numismatica Española

Arte = Artemide

ASIN = Asociacion Iberica de Numismatica

ASR = asta senza riservata

Aurelia = McKenna + Barton FPL(Aurelia Coll. Nov1980)

B = Berlin State Museum

Bald = Baldwin’s

Bara = Baranowsky

Benz = Lanz88(23Nov98)

BM = British Museum

BMFA = Boston Museum of Fine Arts

BNF = Bibliothèque Nationale Française

Boll. Num. = Bolletino di Numimatica

Br=Brock= Brockage

CAD = caduceus

CAMB = Cambridge University

CCCH = Coin Collections and Coin Hoards from Bulgaria

CGB(or CGF) = CGB Numismatique(Paris)

CNG = Classical Numismatic Group

CrDeLaBourse = Crédit de la Bourse

CRRR = CSRR = Crédit de la Bourse 19Apr95

DH =  Museo Taranto

DNW = Dix, Noonan and Webb

Doro = Dorotheum

e before xxx = part of multiple lot xxx

e after xxx = xxxth electronic auction

EH = Emporium Hamburg

Epi = wheatear

F = Firenze

F+S = Freeman + Sear

Fab = Fabretti(Museo Torino catalogo)

Frasc = Frascatius(online seller)

G = Gorny

G+M = Gorny + Mosch

G+N = Gitbud + Naumann

G1,2,3,4,5 = CNG43,44,45,46,47 respectively

Germ Inf = Germania Inferiore(online)

Glasgow = Hunterian Collection in Glasgow

Hersh = Hersh Collection in the British Museum

H = Gerhard Hirsch Mzhg

K = Kuenker

KHM = Kunsthistorisches Museum(Vienna)

KN=KB=Knob = Knobloch Coll.(Stack’s 3May78)

Kolnmzkab = Kölner MünzKabinett

Krich = Kricheldorf

Lejeune = Peus 250

Leu = Bank Leu(<2010);

Leu Numismatics(>2010)

LGH = Lead Ground Hoof

MAH = Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Geneve

M&M = Muenzen und Medaillen(Basel)

M&M-Deut = Muenzen und Medaillen Deutschland

MC = Museo Correr

MOV = mark of value

Mus. Civ. = Museo Civico

Mus. Naz. = Museo Nazionale

MV(monogram) = Müller(Solingen)

MvB = Max von Bahrfeldt

MZ = Muenzzentrum

n.s. = new series

N Circ = Spink’s Numismatic Circular

N+A = Nummis et Ars

NAC = Numismatica Ars Classica

NIC = Leu 17(Nicolas Coll.)

Num Gen = Numismatique Genevensis

O-L = online

Off Die = official die

ONT = Roman Republican Coins in the Royal Ontario Museum, 1998

Peus = Busso Peus

Qd – quadrans

QDG = quadrigatus

QU = quartuncia

RRC = Roman Republican Coinage

RRCH = Roman Republican Coin Hoards

S = Signorelli Coll.;

Santamaria Auct. 4Jun1952

SCMB = Seaby’s Coin and Medal Bulletin

Sobo = St. Omer et Boulogne-sur-Mer

SS = superstructure

Stax = Stack’s

SU = semuncia

Sx = sextans

Sy = Syd = Sydenham 1952 RR catalogue

Syd Coll = Ratto Auction7Feb28

T = Titano

Torino = Turin

Tr = triens

TRI = trident

U = uncia

U PA = Univ. of Pennsylvania

V = Varesi

Vat = Vatican

VE = Victor England (which became CNG) – Thx DS for query leading to this addition!

VICT = victoriatus

VR(ligate)= Voirol Coll.(Leu+M&M 6Dec1968)

WAG = num. company in Arnsberg,Germany

WCN = Warsaw Numismatic Center

WP = Wayne Phillips

Z = Zeno sales by Dorotheum(13Jun55, 8Jun56 and 26Mar57)

4 thoughts on “Reading notations in Schaefer’s binders (RRDP)”

  1. Hi. I read your earlier blog post and your comment on Coin Talk, and wanted to thank you for this. I’m sure it will be very helpful in deciphering the notations. I do have a question about what seem to be a surprisingly large number of Crawford entries that are missing from the index. In the process of annotating my personal catalog with the applicable Schaefer binder and page numbers, I discovered that out of my 28 Republican coins, 9 are missing from the index. (A 10th is also missing, but I found it in one of the actual binders, so that may also be true of others.) A bit surprising, given that my impression from the ANS blog post was that all but “a few” are covered, with one logical exclusion being Crawford 408, c. 61 BCE (the Piso L.F. Frugi [the son] Apollo/horseman issues, for which there has already been a full die study).

    The following Crawford numbers are missing — unless something went wrong with the indexing process:

    340/1 Calpurnia Piso Frugi, Apollo/horseman (the 90 BCE issue of the father) — which I didn’t really expect to find, since I already knew that the son’s issue was excluded.

    363/1 L. Censorinus, Apollo/Marsyas the satyr.

    384/1 L. Papius, Juno Sospita/Gryphon.

    386/1 P. Satrienus, Mars/She-Wolf.

    390/2 Lucretius Trio, Neptune/Cupid riding dolphin.

    394/1 C. Postumius Diana/Hound running.

    412/1 Roscius Fabatus, Juno Sospita/Maiden feeding snake.

    442/1 M. Acilius Glabrio, Salus/Valetudo holding snake.

    453/1a [and the variations thereof] L. Plautius Plancus, Medusa/Aurora & 4 horses.

    In addition, Crawford 316/1 — Thorius Balbus, Juno Sospita/Bull charging right — is missing from the index, but can actually be found in Binder 2, pp. 96, 97, 100, 101, 104, & 105. (Crawford 316/2, a semuncia with a completely different design, is in the index; I took the chance of looking in the binder at the 316/2 page and found 316/1 nearby.) I imagine that it should be simple enough to fix the omission of this issue from the index.

    Some of the missing ones I found do have lots of different control marks or control numbers. But not all of them. Of course, I have no idea how many other numbers are missing; all I know is that 9 of my 28 are not in the index. Still a monumental achievement, of course, and I can hardly complain about the existence of such an amazing resource just because it’s not entirely comprehensive. I suppose I could blame myself for buying examples of quite a few large issues!

    Thanks again.


    1. Thank you so much for your comments. Would you mind sending me your email so I have your address for replies? yarrow [at] brooklyn [dot] cuny [dot] edu Today is swamped but I hope to give this a good part of my time Monday

  2. FYI, I found additional images of Crawford 316/1 (Thorius Balbus) at Binder 2, pp. 50-51, 54-55, 58-59, 64-65, 68, 70-71, 74, 76-77, 80-81, 84-85, 88-89, and 92-93. As I mentioned in my previous comment, all appear to be missing from the index.


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