Schaefer Guide

To learn about RRDP, what has been released, and what’s coming in future,  I recommend reading the Pocket Change blog post.

This page is a work-in-progress draft of a user guide and abbreviations index that will eventually be hosted in its official form on the ANS website alongside the digitization of Schaefer’s die analyses.  This started as a couple of blog posts (user guide, abbreviations, type queries answered), but now it seems best to give it a stable address and link from my home page.

Like so much of my work on RRDP (Roman Republican Die Project), this page represents my attempt to help numismatists (of all backgrounds!)  share data and communicate about the coins we love.  Send me feedback (yarrow [at] brooklyn [dot] cuny [dot] edu)!  Ask me questions!  I want to know what you need to use this archive better (and I’m also curious HOW you are using the material)!

Notation System

When you access a Binder in Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Study on ARCHER (the ANS archive portal), you’ll see something like this (minus my red scribbles on the screenshot):


  1. These are die names assigned by Schaefer
  2. These parallel lines record a die link
  3. Often on the pages you will see drawings or verbal descriptions of Schaefer’s observations of key die features
  4. If the image source recorded a weight it is noted on the bottom of the image between reverse and obverse: look for the g.
  5. If the image source recorded a die axis it will be represented by an arrow near the weight.
  6. The image source is recorded in abbreviated form at the top center of the image.  These abbreviations are sometimes obvious at least to some of us more experienced numismatists but some are really puzzles.  We’re working with Schaefer to develop a key (see below), but this is still incomplete.  So above BMCRR 1287 is easily found in the BM online collection. Likewise NAC 61, lot 1145 is easily found on coin archives.  MacCabe’s collection is on Flickr.  Rauch is another auction and the A stands for Ailly so that’s in Paris….

You may also wish to know the following:

ODEC = One Die for Each Control-Mark; these issues are unlikely to be found in the binders, but will be released with the clippings.

In the binders you will find some duplicate images.  This is because it was not always possible to capture all the data on a page with a single photograph, especially if there were folds, overlaps, or flaps used on the physical page.  The archivist photographed each such page twice.

Status of  release for issues not (yet) linked to CRRO

Incomplete list.  Can’t find an issue?  Curious?  Just e-mail!

316– not indexing correctly, must troubleshoot and update data; for now this this issue can be found in Binder 2, on pages 50, 51, 54, 55, 58, 59, 64, 65, 68, 70, 71, 74, 76, 77, 80, 81, 84, 85, 88, 89, 92, 93, 96, 97 100, 101, 104, 105, 112, 113, 115

363 – Partially on Archer but not yet linked to CRRO go to page 394 of the processed 300-399 clippings.  Two more files were scanned and exist as raw image files than need to be processed and integrated into Archer.

378 – Missing from Archer, files were scanned and exist as raw image files than need to be processed and integrated into Archer.

394 – disambiguation of sub-types in underlying data is required before the online indexing will reflect location, for now this this issue can be found in Binder 6, on pages 104, 106, 107, 112, 113; there is also one clippings image that has not yet been released, but that will contain no new dies.

442– disambiguation of sub-types in underlying data is required before the online indexing will reflect location, for now this this issue can be found in Binder 9, on pages 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 20; there are also four clippings images that have not yet been released, but those will contain no new dies.

453 – disambiguation of sub-types in underlying data is required before the online indexing will reflect location, for now this this issue can be found in Binder 9, on pages 178, 179, 182, 184, 185, 190, 191; there are also three clippings images that have not yet been released, but those will contain no new dies.


Edited and appended by Michael Davis, with assistance from Andrew McCabe, Chris Becraft and Dr. Scott Rottinghaus, from original lists by Richard Schaefer and Liv Mariah Yarrow

Yarrow is continuing to update.  If you find something missing please email me!

Resources for helping identify abbreviations NOT found on this list:

CNG bibliography

Fitzwilliam Catalogue

Note: Schaefer also collected images from online sellers including those on eBay.  Such photographs tend to be marked with the name (alias) of the seller and the month and year the specimen was observed for sale.  Often the background of the image (color, texture, etc…) may provide a clue that it derives from such a source.

A = Ailly = Paris

Axx = Auctiones auction no. xx (subsidiary of Münzen und Medaillen, Basel)

AB = Alberto Banti Collection = Dr. Busso Peus Auktion 322 (1 Nov 1988)

AC = Naville & Cie /Ars Classica, Auctions I – XVIII (1921-1938)

ACR = Art Coins Roma, now known as Bertolami Fine Arts

AES Rude = Aes Rude (Chiasso, Switzerland) and Aes Rude Titano (San Marino) series of auction sales 1978-2010

ALFOLDI = A. Alföldi, Caesar in 44 v. CHR (Rudolf Hebelt Verlag GMBH: Bonn, 1974)

Alvarelhos = Joaquim Torres, Tesouro monetário do castro de Alvarelhos (1979)

AM = Andrew McCabe Collection

A+C = Aureo & Calico (Barcelona, Spain)

AMERS = Heinrich Amersdorffer Collection, Berlin 1976

ANE = Asociacion Numismatica Española

AR (ligate) = Arethusa

Arte = Artemide Aste (San Marino)

ASIN = Asociacion Iberica de Numismatica

ASR = asta senza riservata

AVF (ligate) = Bank Aufhauser series of auction sales

AVR (sometimes ligate) or Aurelia = McKenna + Barton FPL (Aurelia Collection, November 1980)

B = Berlin State Museum

B+W = Birkler & Waddell Ltd. (Washington, DC)

B1, 3, 5, 7, 9 = Virgil M. Brand Collection = Sotheby’s Auctions: 1 July 1982 (Zurich); 9 June 1983 (Zurich); 1 February 1984 (London); 25 October 1984 (London); and 24 October 1985 (London)

Badian = Now at Rutgers and integrated into CRRO

Bald = A. H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd. (London)

Bara = Michele Baranowsky (Milan, Italy)

Bast = Bastianelli Collection = DeFalco FPL 83 (December 1969)

Benz = Leo Benz Collection = Numismatik Lanz Auction 88 (Munich), 23 Nov 1998

Bem = Clarence S. Bement Collection = Naville & Cie, Ars Classica Auction VIII (Lucerne), 25-8 June 1924

Berk = Harlan J. Berk Ltd. (Chicago, IL)

Bern = R. Wegeli and P. Hofer, Die Munzen der romischen Republik bis zum Jahre 27 (Bern Museum Inventory)

BM or BMCRR = H. A. Grueber, Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum (British Museum; London, 1910)

BMI = Baldwin, M&M Numismatics and Italo Vecchi, joint auctions held in New York, NY as “The New York Sale” [The New York Sale, Auction I, 3 December 1998; The New York Sale, Auction II, 2 December 1999]

BMFA = Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, Massachusetts)

BNF = Bibliothèque Nationale Française

BOL = Bologna Nostra Catalogue 17 April -22 May 1966

Boll. Num. = Bolletino di Numismatica

BON = Dr. Bonazzi Collection = Rodolfo Ratto Auction (Lugano), 23 January 1924

BOTT = Museo Bottacin (Padua, Italy)

BPI = Dr. Busso Peus auction of old Peus collection, 28 April 1993

BPII = Dr. Busso Peus auction of old Peus collection, 9 November 1993


BR = George Bauer Collection = Glendining & Co. Auction (London), 23 January 1963

BRU = Count Luigi Brunacci Collection = P&P Santamaria Auction (Rome), 24 February 1958

BVTTREY = T. Buttrey, “The Denarii of P. Crepusius and Roman Republication Mint Organization”, ANS Museum Notes, Vol. 21 (1976), pp. 67-108

CAD = caduceus

CAHN = Adolph E. Cahn (Frankfurt, Germany)

CAL = Calico, Los Denarios Romanos, 2nd Ed. (1991)

CANOVAS = Manuel Canovas Collection = Vinchon Auction (Paris), 18 May 1994

CAMB = Cambridge University Collection

CAPALBIO = Capalbio Hoard, P.B.S.R. 1967, pp 1-4

CCCH = Coin Collections and Coin Hoards from Bulgaria

CEDER = Thomas Cederlind (Portland, Oregon), series of buy or bid sales.

CGB (or CGF) = CGB Numismatique (Paris, France)

C.H. = Charles Herrenschmidt Collection, Maison Platt Auction, 8 November 1983

CNG = Classical Numismatic Group (Lancaster, Pennsylvania and London, England)

CNR = Classical Numismatic Review (retail fixed-price list publication of CNG)

COIN GALL = Coin Galleries, ancient and foreign coin division of Stack’s (New York, NY) and issuer of FPLs and auction sales

CONSUL WEBER = Consul Eduard F. Weber Collection = Dr. Jacob Hirsch Auction XXIV (Munich), 10 May 1909

CrDeLaBourse = Crédit de la Bourse SA (Paris, France)

CREMONA = G. Fenti, Medagliere Cremonese Monete romane dell’eta republicana (Brescia, 1979)

CRIPPA = Carlo Crippa Numismatica (Milan, Italy) series of fix priced lists (FPLs) and auction sales [NOTE: includes a particularly fruitful series of bi-monthly FPLs issued from 1963-1972.]

CRRR = CSRR = Crédit de la Bourse Auction (Paris), 19-21 April 1995

Cuzzi = Arturo Cuzzi Collection = Michele Baranowski Auction, 9-10 December 1929

DEFALCO = Giuseppe De Falco Numismatica (Naples) series of fixed price lists, company continued by Alberto De Falco

DH = Museo Taranto hoard

DK = Dennis Kroh (Empire Coins) FPL

DNW = Dix, Noonan and Webb (London, England)

DOH = Patrick A. Doheny Collection = Sotheby’s Auction (London), 20 June 1979

Doro = Dorotheum

Duisberg = Sammlung Kohler-Osbahr, Band IV: Duisberg (1997)

e before xxx = part of multiple lot xxx

e after xxx = xxxth electronic auction

EH = Emporium Hamburg

Epi = wheatear

ESR = Erich Von Schulthess-Rechberg Collection = Hess-Leu Auction, 23 March 1961

F = Firenze

F+S = Freeman & Sear (Los Angeles, California)

Fab = Fabretti (Museo Torino catalogo)

Faina = Claudio Faina Museum Collection (Orvieto, Italy) = M. Bergamini, Museo Claudio Faina di Orvieto (Perugia, 1995)

FPL = Fixed-Price List

Frasc = Frascatius (online seller)

G = Gorny

GAR = Garrett Collection, Part 1 = Numismatic Fine Arts and Bank Leu Auction, 16 May 1984

G-B = R. Gebhardt and N.J. Backes, Münzkatalog römische Republik, von 290 v.Chr. bis Marcus Antonius (Augsburg, Battenberg/ Weltbild, 1998)

G+M = Gorny & Mosch GmbH (Munich, Germany)

G+N = Gitbud & Naumann Münzhandlung München GmbH

G1,2,3,4,5 = The Goodman (Richard Schaefer) Collection, Parts 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 = auction sales of The Goodman Collection of Roman Republican Coins in CNG 43,44,45,46,47 respectively (Classical Numismatic Group (Lancaster, PA and London, England))

Germ Inf = Germania Inferior Numismatics (online dealer) (Netherlands)

Glasgow = Hunterian Collection in Glasgow

HALL = Henry Platt Hall Collection = Glendining & Co. Auction (London), 19-21 July 1950

HANN = Kestner-Museum Hannover Collection = F. Berger, Die Münzen der Römischen Republik im Kestner-Museum Hannover (Kestner-Museum Hannover; Hannover, 1989)

Hb (ligate) = Ernst Justus Haeberlin Collection = Adolph E. Cahn and Adolph Hess Auction (Frankfurt), 17 July 1933

Hersh = Charles A. Hersh Collection in the British Museum

H = Gerhard Hirsch Münzhandlung

HAMB (sometimes ligate) = Leo Hamburger (Frankfurt, Germany)

HAMB also = Hamburger Kunsthalle Collection = R. Postel, Katalog der antiken Münzen in der Hamburger Kunsthalle  (Hamburg: Christians, 1976)

H-D = Hess-Divo (Germany)

HERITAGE = Heritage Auctions (Dallas, TX)

HESP29 = Hesperia Art Bulletin 29 (Philadelphia, PA)

HOOFF = A.H. Drijfhout Van Hoof Collection = Jacques Schulman Auction (Amsterdam), 29 March 1949

HORSKY = Johann Horsky Collection = Adolph Hess Nachf. Auction (Frankfurt), 30 April 1917

HOSK = Hoskier Collection [NOTE: It is unclear which of the several Hoskier sales is intended – Jacob Hirsch Auction XX, 13 November 1907 or Hess A.G., 15 February 1934.]

IB = Iber Gold Auction, Canyon (Madrid), 1 April 1986

IN = Internet

IV (C.S.) or IV = Credit Suisse

J1, J2 = Jameson Collection, Parts 1 and 2, respectively = Leo Hamburger Auctions 95 (10 May 1932) and 96 (25 Oct 1932), respectively [NOTE: In Ancient Coin Auction Catalogues 1880-1980 (Spink, 2009), John Spring states that Hamburger Auction 96 includes some ex Jameson coins, however he does not make the same statement for Hamburger Auction 95. Further, it is not certain that any of the Roman Republican coins in these sales were ex Jameson.]

Jameson = Robert Jameson Collection = Feuardent Bros., Collection R. Jameson: Monnaies Grecques Antiques et Impériales Romaines (Chez Feuardent Frères; Paris, 1913-32)

K or KVNKER = Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG (Osnabrück, Germany)

KEST = Kestner-Museum Hannover Collection = F. Berger, Die Münzen der Römischen Republik im Kestner-Museum Hannover (Kestner-Museum Hannover; Hannover, 1989)

KHM = Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna)

KN=KB=Knob = Frederick S. Knobloch Collection = Stack’s Auction, 3 May 1978

Kolnmzkab = Kölner Münzkabinett (Cologne, Germany)

KRESS = Karl Kress (Germany) series of fixed price lists and auction sales

KRICH = Kricheldorf (Germany)

Lejeune = Ernst Lejeune Collection = Dr. Busso Peus Auction 250, 15 March 1954

L = Leu = Bank Leu (before 2010); OR Leu Numismatik (after 2010)

LA = Laughlin Collection = Adolph Hess Auction, 18 December 1933

LAW = L.A. Lawrence Collection = Glendining & Co. Auction (London), 7 December 1950

LGH = lead ground hoof  (for differentiating reverse dies with Dioscuri)

LOC =    N. Vismara; F. Guido; R. Martini, Il lascito numismatico Carlo Rossi del gabinetto numismatico di Locarno (1996)

LUX = Luxembourg = R. Weiller, Catalogue des Monnaies de la Republique Romaines. Musée d’Histoire et d’Art, Luxembourg, Cabinet des médailles (Luxembourg, 1969)

M = Milan Museum Collection catalogue [NOTE: This abbreviation likley refers to G. G. Belloni, Le Monete Romane dell’età Repubblicana (Milan, 1960); rather than Sylloge Numorum Romanorum: Res Publica Milan 1994]

M+H = Collections of Colonel R.H. Morcom, Rev. A. W. Hands and M. Julius Werthiem = Rodolfo Ratto Auction (Lugano), 8 February 1928.

MAH = Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Geneve

MAR (sometimes ligate) = Joseph Martini Collection = Rodolfo Ratto Auction (Lugano), 24 Feb 1930 [NOTE: Not to be confused with the later Michele Baranowski auction (25 Feb 1931) of the Valerio Traverso and Joseph Martini Collections.  In the Baranowski sale, the Roman Republican coins were from Valerio Traverso’s collection.]

MAINZ = F.J. Hassel, Die Munzen Der Romischen Republik Im Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum (Mainz, 1985)

Mc = Hall Park McCullough Collection = Stack’s Auction (New York, NY), 20-2 November 1967

MHS = Massachusetts Historical Society Collection (featuring the Collection of President John Quincy Adams and Descendants) = Stack’s Auction (New York, NY), 5-6 March 1971

M&M or MM = Münzen und Medaillen (Basel)

M&M-Deut = Münzen und Medaillen Deutschland

MC = Museo Correr

MOLINA = Jose Fernandez Molina, Manuel Fernandez Carrerra and Xavier Calico Estivill, Catalogo Monografico de los Denarios de la Republica Romana (Madrid, 2002) [NOTE: This book infamously contains altered coin photgraphs.]

MOR = Moreira Collection, Part 1 = Superior Galleries Auction (Beverly Hills, CA), 31 May 1988

MORUZZI = Publications named after gens, so JVL or JUL = Julia, not July

MOV = mark of value

MzH GB = Morcom & Hands (UK)

NMBD = Duke of Northumberland Collection = Sotheby’s Auction (London), 4 Nov 1982 [NOTE: Collection originally described in Adm. W.H. Smyth, Descriptive Catalogue of a Cabinet of Roman Family Coins (London, 1856).]

Munzh.BASEL = M nzhandlung Basel series of auction sales and fixed price lists 1934-1938.

Mus. Civ. = Museo Civico

Mus. Naz. = Museo Nazionale

MV (monogram) = Müller (Solingen)

MvB = Max von Bahrfeldt

MZ = Münz Zentrum

n.s. = new series

N Circ = Spink’s Numismatic Circular

N+A = Nummis et Ars

NAC = Numismatica Ars Classica (Zurich – Milan – London)

NFA = Numismatic Fine Arts (Los Angeles, California)

NG = Walter Niggeler Collection = Bank Leu and Munzen und Medaillen Auction, 21-2 October 1966 [Part 2 of a 4-part sale of the Niggeler Collection.]

NIC = Nicolas Collection = Bank Leu Auction 17 (Zurich), 3-4 May 1977

NIK or NIKL = Niklovitz Collection = Leo Hamburger Auktion (Frankfurt), 19 October 1925

NORD = Edmund Nordheim Collection = Glendining Auction (London), 9 March 1931

Num Gen = Numismatique Genevensis

O-L = online

Off Die = official die

ONT = A.H. Eason, Roman Republican Coins in the Royal Ontario Museum, 1998

OZ = Ozieri Museum, Sardinia = F. Guido, The Coins of the Civic Museum, Ozieri (Sardinia) (Milan, 1998)

Peus = Dr. Busso Peus, Germany

PIAN = Piancastelli Collection, Biblioteca Cononario di Forli (1972)

PR = Prowe Collection = Adolph Hess Nachf. (Frankfurt), Auction 20 May 1912

PRIVAT = Peter Hofer Collection = Silbermunzen der Romischen Republik Privatsammlung P(eter) H(ofer) (February 1980)

Prix = Professor Prix Collection = Otto Helbing Nachf. Auktion 63 (Munich), 29 April 1931

PROF B = Professor Claudio Bonacini Collection = Oscar Rinaldi & Figlio FPL 1 (1 January 1942)

Qd – quadrans

QDG = quadrigatus

  1. Hd. = C. A. Hersh, “A Quinarius Hoard from Southern Italy”, Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 12 (1972), pp. 75-88

QU = quartuncia

QyR = Manuel Vidal Quadras y Ramon Collection = Etienne Bourgey Auction (Paris), 4-5 November 1913

R2 = The Frederick H. Rindge Collection, Part 2 = Joel L. Malter & Co., Inc. Auction XXX (Encino, CA), 7-8 June 1985

R27 = Rodolfo Ratto (Lugano), Monnaies Romaines de la République jusqu’a l’époch d’Auguste, Fixed-Price List (1927)

REP ##### = A coin in Paris, can be found searching by REP and number in Gallica.

RASH = J.C.S. Rashleigh Collection = Glendining & Co. Auction (London), 14-16 January 1953

RIECH20 = Max von Bahrfeldt Collection = A. Riechmann Auction XX, 18-20 September 1922

ROSEN = Jonathan P. Rosen Collection = Robert J. Myers Auction 7 (New York, NY), 19-20 April 1974

RRC = Michael Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage (Cambridge University Press; London, 1974)

RRCH = Michael Crawford, Roman Republican Coin Hoards (Royal Numismatic Society; London, 1969)

RYAN = V.J.E. Ryan Collection = Glendining & Co. Auction (London), 2 April 1952

S or SIGN = Professor Angelo Signorelli Collection = P&P Santamaria Auction (Rome), 4 Jun 1952

S-G = Seaby-Glendining Auction (London), 15-17 July 1929 [NOTE: There was a second, joint Seaby-Glendining auction, held in London 1-2 December 1927, which also included Roman Republican coins.]

SB = Swiss Bank (Zurich) Auctions

SCHULTEN (ligate) = Schulten & Co. (Frankfurt) series of fixed price lists and auction sales, 1977-1990

SCMB = Seaby’s (London) Coin and Medal Bulletin

SNR-M = Sylloge Numorum Romanorum – Milano (1994-7)

Sobo = St. Omer et Boulogne-sur-Mer

SS = superstructure

ST = Frank Sternberg (Zurich), series of auctions, I (1973) – XXXV (2000)

Stax = Stack’s, New York, NY

SU = semuncia

Sx = sextans

Sy = Syd = E.A. Sydenham, The Roman Republican Coinage (Spink & Son; London, 1952)

Syd or Syd Coll = E. A. Sydenham Collection = Rodolfo Ratto Auction, 7 Feb 1928

T = Asta Internazionale Del Titano, San Marino

TO = TOL = Tolstoi Collection = Adolph Hess Nachf. Auction (Frankfurt), 11 March 1912

TODI = M. Bergamini and F. Catalli, Museo comunale di Todi: monete (1991)

Torino = Turin

TNRB = B. Czurda and F. Dick, Thesaurus Numorum Romanorum et Byzantinorum (Vienna, 1975)

Tr = triens

TRI = trident

TRITON = Series of annual “Triton” auctions sales conducted by CNG, initially with other firms; eventually controlled exclusively by CNG.

U = uncia

UBS = UBS Gold & Numismatics, series of auction sales.

U PA = Univ. of Pennsylvania Collection

V = VAR = Numismatica Varesi (Pavia, Italy)

Vat = Vatican Collection = G. Alteri, Tipogia Delle Monete Della Repubblica Di Roma (Vatican, 1990)

VE (sometimes ligate) = Victor England (founder of CNG), but used as substitute for CNG

VECCHI = Italo Vecchi Auction (London)

VICT = victoriatus

VICT Hd. = M.H. Crawford, “An early hoard of victoriati”, Numismatic Chronicle, 7th Series, vol. 10 (1970)

VR (ligate)= Voirol Collection = Münzen und Medaillen (Basel) Auction 38, 6-7 Dec 1968

WADDELL = Edward J. Waddell Ltd. (Frederick, Maryland) series of fixed price lists and auction sales

WAG = numismatic company in Arnsberg, Germany

WCN = Warsaw Numismatic Center

WEST = Westminster School, London, Collection = Sotheby’s Auction (London) 26-7 May 1976

WITSCHONKE = R. Witschonke, “Some late ‘early’ Republican quinarii”, Coins of Macedonia and Rome: Essays in honor of Charles Hersh (Spink, London; 1998)

WP = Wayne Phillips

WU = John Max Wulfing Collection = K. Herbert, The John Max Wulfing Collection in Washington University: Roman Republican Coins, (ANS; 1987)

WW = Arthur M. Woodward Collection = Glendining & Co. Auction (London), 27 September 1962

Z = Apostolon Zeno Collection = Dorotheum Auction (Vienna), 8-9 June 1956