So I assume along with the great and the good that the Mars Eagle types was introduced to support the introduction of denarius and thus it dates to 211 BCE and after. Right? right.
Ok. Fine. But doesn’t it seem likely that the Roman eagle inspired the eagle on the Capua As (HN Italy 503, BM 1937,0606.19 illustrated below) and Didrachm (HN Italy 480):
I know I know. Iconography is a terrible way to date coins but it does strike me as a little funny.
Frugi’s coin is clearly a patera and part of the priestly implements (RRC 418):
Now lets look at an under appreciated coin from much earlier RRC 271
Same rendering. Same object. EVEN the same type of wreath! We now much put Cavedoni‘s idea that it might be connected to the lex Acilia back on the table which Crawford threw out. (I find myself relieved that he also makes the Piso Frugi parallel!)
Livy slips into the timeless ethnographic present to explain to his readers how Gallic (Celtic) bodies, barbarian bodies aren’t like their own…
I cannot think of one off-hand, but I’d love to hear ideas. This ANS specimen got me thinking:
And that led me to the thoughts of Carroccio in SNR 85 (2006) 220:
Curiouser and Curiouser.
AND then these odd coins from Melita (Malta) with a Punic inscription which I think are likely related in some fashion. The Melita coin is typically put 211-175 BCE (I think because of weight standard, but I’m unclear on this):