Alexander on Horseback


So, I started noticing the wild hair of the rider on Crepusius’ coins (RRC 361) and then I started thinking that clothing didn’t look very Roman either.  That led me to re read

Michael J. Taylor. “The Battle Scene on Aemilius Paullus’s Pydna Monument: A Reevaluation.” Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 85, no. 3 (2016): 559-76. doi:10.2972/hesperia.85.3.0559.

He makes the point that Roman cavalry wear tight fitting armor but often Macedonian warriors are represented with more flowing drapery.  He brings in a bunch of comparative visual evidence.  Figure 21 is the key.  Here is his reconstruction.  I’ve colored all the Romans yellow to make things clearer.  Besides Macedonians there are Allies and Gauls left uncolored


So who has that wild hair rides, dresses like a Macedonian, and is famous for his equestrian statues.  Oh just this dude:



Youthful Oak Wreathed Deity with a Thunderbolt

I’m doing the image research for this paper I’m giving at a conference at UVa next week.

Yarrow - Ludi Apollinares on the Republican Coin Series.jpg

I can’t avoid talking about the whole Veiovis/Apollo/Composite Deities issues (See Wiseman and now Luke) – This is such a time suck rabbit hole, I’m just trusting one day my thoughts might add up to something.

Yarrow - Ludi Apollinares on the Republican Coin Series2.jpg

Gellius writes about the connection between Ve(d)iovis and Apollo.  He mentions she-goats and arrows.

This is from Luke (link above), p. 257.



A c. 2nd Century BCE marble statue head of a goddess who likely had a lunate crescent attaching to her fillet was found in his temple:


Digital Augustan Rome Screenshots RE Temples.


For survey of evidence of cult on Tiber Island see p. 88 following of this Master’s Thesis.




There is also a great reconstruction by Burges in Davies 2017: 197, fig. 5.9:


Davies thinks transverse orientation of cellas is a practical choice, but Marcattili suggests a religious logic at play:


There is a translation of FASTI PRAENESTINI online, important part is very beginning (image, image and info). Likely compiled by Verius Flaccus. {Complements Ovid ref which is much more vague)


[… is named] in Latium . . . [sacrifices] with the libation which [is called Janual]
A [Kalends of January. Business in Court.] To Aesculapius and Vediovis on the island. This day, along with the [other] Kalends, is given the name {calendae} because it is the first of the days which the pontifex minor [calls] on the Capitol in the Calabrian senate-house, in every month up until each Nones. The new year [begins then] because on this day the new magistrates enter office; this custom started in the 601st year after the foundation [of Rome].

Assuming Veiovis is the same as Vetisl/Veive, the Etruscan god, this is interesting (To read more: This and This):


He is #15 on the Piacenza Liver:


Jannot thinks this puts him in the category of a god of fate and near CVL (Janus)


From the same:


Stevens, Natalie L. C. “A New Reconstruction of the Etruscan Heaven.” American Journal of Archaeology 113, no. 2 (2009): 153-64:


The association with the Dii Publici may explain some of the iconographic pairings on the  coins….

LIMC Veiovis entry! (Thanks to Alexander Heinemann)



Hayes says the following connecting Suri/Apollo to Veiovis/Dis Pater at the sanctuary at Pyrgi.  I’m not sure there is enough evidence to make the leap but do find it interesting…


Apollo replacing Hercules


There are lots of Apollos on the coin series in the 90s onwards (old news and of debated significance) and Piso is really into Apollo (RRC 340).

But the one place Piso breaks with the conventional assignments of deities is with the quadrans where he uses Apollo instead of Hercules.

Update:  The same replacement is clearly evident for Vibius’ quadrans as well (RRC 344/7 )as well!


This makes me think about WHY this deity and why the two seem to be entangled in the Roman mind Musa’s issue (RRC 410/1)Capture.JPG

And also makes me think a little about this earlier post

and also about Augustan use of the struggle for Delphi as a political metaphor (Zanker etc…)



I’m trying to remember to put stuff here and then tweet rather than just throwing it up on twitter where it is lost from memory and any easy search capacity.