16 out of 234 days: News of the Nemi photos

Turns out there are two sets of the photographs of Nemi finds taken by Lord Savile, not only the ones in the BM I’ve been trying to located but also in Nottingham. These aren’t fully digitized (yet), but the internal collections database has turned up wonderfully detailed descriptions of each print AND notes on how they correspond to photographs in the BM. So the BM photos exist clearly, and once I get the funds to go see the Nemi coins in person, I’ll also be able to study the photographs (maybe, hopefully even share them). I’ve seen one sample image and it is of high quality and the coins are legible (but only one side). I’m particularly interested that the photos seem to specify WHERE on the site the coins were found and other materials from the same find spot.

I wonder if Lord Savile kept a journal and if his personal papers are on deposit in some accessible archive…

You can get a sense of these photos from a blog post from 2013 by Pete Bounous, no coins but some low res images of votive offerings.

The 1893 catalogue of the first exhibit in Nottingham of the Nemi material is also available online. It is well illustrated for the time but alas no coin images. However, it does nicely distinguish the find spot of the aes rude from the aes grave!

p. 5

The ritual foundation deposit under the entrance fits well with other similar foundation finds.

Other things in the catalogue that charmed me was the great enthusiasm of the time for the letter forms used to spell DIANA on this bronze handle.

p.36-37

I’m also delighted with this report of a base to go with one of the small bronze statues. So often those figures are de contextualized from their original function, I find this satisfying to know of:


I’ve been overestimating what I can get done in a day. I’m going to try to put less on the today list.

Today

  • BM archivist reply
  • Review grad student apps by Jan 19
  • LETTER
  • Other email correspondence as necessary

Not Today (but maybe tomorrow, or the day after)

  • post conference Rome accommodation
  • Teaching requests for Fall 2023
  • Circle back to department about any Jan planning meetings
  • Set time table for any collaborative RRDP work/publication prep that needs to happen this semester: Chicago pub, INC pub, collaboration with RACOM, etc…
  • Circle back to Capito project
  • Consider ask for funding from Dean’s office
  • Begin Med school rec letter
  • record mini myth
  • find out what is on that v old harddrive and back up to cloud
  • Write up Teaching Eval
  • Cancel at least one more digital membership
  • renew Coinarchives

15 out of 234 days: Venusia’s weight standard

ANS Specimen acquired 1922 unknown to Haberlin

I was getting my brain warmed up trying to think of the monetary landscape in the pre 1st Punic War period. So I looked at RRC 13/1 distribution and colonization efforts again and that got me thinking what I knew about the coinage of Venusia.

Luckily “past me” had ordered Burnett 1991, so I found a pdf on file. I was interested in the idea that the fractions might be on a different weight standard than the whole unit. I’ve not looked at the fractional weights but I thought I’d see if I could re look at the data and include any specimens not known to Haeberlin (his plates). I only found one in trade and the one illustrated above in the ANS. I’ve found none in: Oxford, Yale, Princeton, Cambridge, Michigan, Capitoline, IKMK (I’ve not checked my Copenhagen or Glasgow image files yet). With only 13 specimens no average or median is going to be very conclusive, but a box and whiskers gives some idea of shape of the data. A close cluster with relatively short whiskers and two extreme outliers.

243.29 ANS 1922

320.58 Paris

327.55 Naples Cat. 1.571

329.97 ANS = Weber Cat. 2.118 (purchased from D. Stilianpoulos, Smyrna, 1898)

331.1 Naples Cat. 345 (Garrucci pl.65,6)

332.28 Trade

333.59 Venosa 1903

333.69 von Bunbury

335.4 Venosa 1903

336.94 Venosa 1903

338.51 BM

339.35 Venosa 1903

356.37 Venosa 1903

I don’t know where the Hoard of 5 specimens found in 1903 and purchased by Haeberlin ended up. It is this hoard’s find location that has lead to the association of the type with the colony.

There is some relatively recent bibliography that I’d like to read on the colony:

Stek, Tesse D.. “Motivazioni e forme alternative dell’espansionismo romano repubblicano: il caso delle colonie latine nelle aree interne appenniniche.” In Paesaggi mediterranei di età romana : archeologia, tutela, comunicazione, Edited by Mastrocinque, Gianluca. Bibliotheca Archaeologica; 47, 135-146. Roma: Edipuglia, 2017.

Casarotto, Anita, Pelgrom, Jeremia and Stek, Tesse D.. “Testing settlement models in the early Roman colonial landscapes of Venusia (291 B. C.), Cosa (273 B. C.) and Aesernia (263 B. C.).” Journal of Field Archaeology 41, no. 5 (2016): 568-586. Doi: 10.1080/00934690.2016.1211474

Grelle, Francesco. “Le colonie latine e la romanizzazione della Puglia.” In Epigrafia e territorio, politica e società : temi di antichità romane. 8, Edited by Pani, Mario. Documenti e Studi; 42, 165-199. Bari: Edipuglia, 2007.

Perhaps I’ll diagram weights of the smaller denominations next…


Today

  • BM conservation reply
  • BM archivist reply
  • Cancel at least one more digital membership
  • renew Coinarchives
  • Review grad student apps by Jan 19
  • Banking documents
  • LETTER
  • Other email correspondence as necessary
  • PROOFS
  • PEER REVIEW

Not Today (but maybe tomorrow, or the day after)

  • post conference Rome accommodation
  • Teaching requests for Fall 2023
  • Circle back to department about any Jan planning meetings
  • Set time table for any collaborative RRDP work/publication prep that needs to happen this semester: Chicago pub, INC pub, collaboration with RACOM, etc…
  • Circle back to Capito project
  • Consider ask for funding from Dean’s office
  • Begin Med school rec letter
  • record mini myth
  • find out what is on that v old harddrive and back up to cloud
  • Write up Teaching Eval

Lake Nemi Coin Finds

associated with the recovery of the ships

Good news, the Cesano pdf arrived. Bad news, no photos of republican specimens. Also, based on the lamp article I was expecting more republican material and lots more coins overall, ho hum.

Still it is interesting that they are ALL asses no other denominations… does that make it more likely they are ritual deposits?

RRC 183/1 – 169-158 BCE

RRC 182/1 – 169-158 BCE

RRC 85/2 – 211 BC – 210 BCE

RRC 191/1 – 169-158 BCE

maybe RRC 134/2 – 194-190 BCE, Crawford resolves monogram L PL H but I can imagine it being misread as LAP an I can find no other candidate types.

RRC 174/1 – 169-158 BCE

Description of find spots


Some Aes Grave Bibliography

From L’Année philologique

Martínez Chico, David. “Reciente hallazgo de « aes grave » – as – en el Algarve (Portugal).” Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia 20 (2017): 107-111. [pdf online]

A new « aes grave » coin is documented, dated approximately between 275 and 270 BC. C. Although it is part of a private collection, it is known that it was found in southern Portugal, specifically in Figueirinha (S. Marcos da Ataboeira, Castro Verde). An attempt is made to relate this finding to other coins also recovered in the Iberian Peninsula. It is concluded that this Roman coin must have been brought to the region after the outbreak of the Second Punic War.

Martínez Chico, David. “La moneda « aes grave » hallada en la península ibérica y su relación con la segunda guerra púnica.” Rivista Italiana di Numismatica e Scienze Affini 117 (2016): 21-33. [pdf online]

The sporadic diffusion of Roman coins of the “aes grave” type in the Iberian Peninsula is attested only after the outbreak of the Second Punic War and to a much lesser extent than the coin production in silver.

Werz, Ulrich. “Ein Aes grave aus Rheinau.” Archäologie Schweiz = Archéologie Suisse = Archeologia Svizzera 38, no. 4 (2015): 36-39. Doi: 10.5169/seals-587490

A cut “semis”, unearthed in Rheinau in 2011, is the first “aes grave” discovered on Swiss territory. This is a fragment of a coin minted after the monetary reform of 217 BC. J.-C., which reduced the weight of these pieces from 324 to 368 grams.[sic!] This currency did not arrive at the place of its discovery through monetary circulation, but through an exchange.

Hollstein, Wilhelm. “Ovids « Fasti » und das « aes grave » mit der Prora.” In « Noctes Sinenses »: Festschrift für Fritz-Heiner Mutschler zum 65. Geburtstag, Edited by Heil, Andreas, Korn, Matthias and Sauer, Jochen. Kalliope; 11, 59-67. Heidelberg: Winter, 2011.

Ovid leaves in Fast. 1, 229ff. interpret the Prora on the reverse of RRC 35/1 through the Janus on the obverse to indicate the arrival of Saturn in Latium. However, the coin dates to 241 BC, as do RRC 28/3, 35/2 and 35/3. BC, more precisely to the capture of Falerii and the victory in the naval battle of the Aegean Islands. As H. W. Ritter (=> 82-10324) has already seen, Janus on the front of 35/1 and Jupiter directing the quadriga on the back of 28/3 refer to the first victory, as well as Minerva on the front of 35/3 . The Prora on the reverse of the coins refer to the latter victory. On the obverse of 35/2 Saturn is not depicted as assumed by H. Mattingly (=> APh 3, p. 184, under H. Mattingly, 4th title), but because of the two victories Jupiter as the triumphant par excellence. The beardless Janus on the obverse of 28/3 represents the closure of the arch of Janus after defeating the Carthaginians.

Jaia, Alessandro M. and Molinari, Maria Cristina. “Two deposits of aes grave from the sanctuary of Sol Indiges (Torvaianica/Rome): the dating and function of the Roman libral series.” Numismatic Chronicle 171 (2011): 87-97. [on file – obviously it is like my favorite article of all time!]

Molinari, Maria Cristina. “Gli esemplari di « aes signatum » e « aes grave » dalla collezione del Medagliere Capitolino.” Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma 111 (2010): 15-53. [academia.edu] [jstor – photos slightly higher quality] Extremely important, esp. Appendices.

See also:

Molinari, Maria Cristina. “Un Ripostiglio Di ‘Aes Grave’ Proveniente Dai «Colli Vaticani» (Roma).” Bullettino Della Commissione Archeologica Comunale Di Roma 105 (2004): 115–22. jstor. [NOTE: The end in particular is very important for its discussion of find context and how it may related to a cult center. Bellona-Ma, Magna Mater]

Bruni, Stefano. “Sulla circolazione dell’« aes grave » di Volterra: nuovi contributi.” Rivista Italiana di Numismatica e Scienze Affini 100 (1999): 47-56. [ILL requested]

Reporting of the discoveries of Volterra coins, completing the contribution of F. Catalli (=> 47-08252), with particular regard to the northern borders of the city territory

Bar, Marc. “À propos du poids des plaques d’aes signatum, de leur nature et de leur fonction.” Rivista Italiana di Numismatica e Scienze Affini 95 (1993): 277-286. [ILL requested]

Burnett, Andrew. “The beginnings of Roman coinage.” Annali dell’Istituto Italiano di Numismatica XXXVI (1989): 33-64. [on file, obviously]

Ercolani Cocchi, Emanuela. Catalogo della collezione numismatica di Carlo Piancastelli. Aes grave. Moneta Romana repubblicana. Forlì: 1972. [next ANS visit]

From Donum:

no author set. “Aes Signatum and Aes Grave of the Morgan Collection” Coin Collector’s Journal, N.S Vol. 18, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec., 1951), pp. 125-129.

Orsi 1908 [Donum citation]

In the News of the excavations (1902, p. 217-218) I announced the discovery in the territory of Visrini (Catania) of a one libral standard uncia of Latium (astragalus [knuckle-bone]; Garrucci, pl. XL, fig. 40) and in that of Ragusa of two Latin quadranti (Head of Hercules – Prow of ship). These three pieces would have been the first specimens of aes grave found, or at least reported, in Sicily, and introductory, it should be noted, not by modern coin dealers, but in antiquity. Following the discoveries of 1902, I have noted others in the following years; and I have always used the greatest scruple in eliminating those pieces that have fallen on the antiques market, for which there may be

legitimate suspicion they were of modern import; whereas I have taken great account of those seen in the hands of country people. A as on the reduced libral standard comes from Castrogiovanni (Janus — Prow, see Garrucci, Table XXIX, 8), of which it was not possible for me to take the weight. From the territory of Nolo a semis of gr. 40.5 (Head of Jupiter — Prow of ship). From a hoard of several aes grave, found according to some in Naxos, according to others, in Piazza Armerina, there were two uncia from Latium (astragalus – Globulus [knucklebone-dot]: Garrucci Pl XXXV11, 6; barley grain with globulus [dot] – Idem, Garrucci Table XXXIV, 6). Another quadrans similar to those announced in 1902 comes from the Ragusa area; finally, from the countryside of Catania a triens from Latium (Dolphin 3 dots— double thunderbolt 3 dots see Garrucci Plates XXXVII, 3). All of these pieces predate, and some by quite a lot, 268 BCE; they serve to highlight the history, still so uncertain, of the commercial relations between Rome, Latium and Sicily in the centuries IV and III BCE. While the consular money of the III – I a. C. are very frequent in Sicily, aes grave had not been reported by anyone up to now, or at least it had gone unnoticed.

Next ANS visit look at publications of Spinelli, S. Giorgio, Il Principe di.

To be continued…

Bonačić Mandinić, Maja. “Aes grave iz Jesenica.” Archaeologia Adriatica 2, no. 1 (2008): 235-242. [full text]

In the collection of the Archaeological Museum in Split, there is a copy of an aes grave of the Apolon/Apolon type (RRC 18/1). It belongs to the issue of the mint in Rome from 275 to 270 BC. It was found around 1901 in Jesenice. Any details about the context of the find are not known. Jesenice is a village at about 200 to 250 m above sea level, on the slope of Perun – the southern slope of the Mosor mountain. Along with other Hellenistic finds from the wider area of Jesenice, along the coast between Split and Omiš, this find could testify to the connection of the Illyrians with the Greeks from Isa and Faros, through the nearby Epeti, that is, with the first Roman merchants who most likely came to contact with the Illyrians. In addition to the aes grave from Jesenice, in the collection of the Archaeological Museum in Split, there are three more semis, fractions worth half of the aes grave. There are two bull/wheel types (RRC 24/4), issue from 265-242. ex. BC, and one of the Saturn/ship bow type (RRC 35/2), issue from 225-217. ex. Kr. Such an early Roman coin in the Illyrian area did not serve as money, but was most likely considered a valuable bronze object with a distinctive appearance, so it was stored as such, and was not used to make other bronze objects.

The Nemi Temple

Terracotta model of a temple pediment, from the sanctuary of Diana Nemorensis. From Nemi, loc. Giardino, Sanctuary of Diana.Mid-Republican period, 4th-3rd c. BCE Villa PoniatowskiMuseo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia, Rome, Italy. IMAGE from Dan Diffendale (link)

Dan’s photos are always SO good! If you go to his photo stream he has a few more of this same object from different angles. The detail I wanted to record other than just the existence of this object and its location is the center image, which to my eye in this photo looks like three seated women and I’d be tempted to read as a representation of the cult image.

Here’s another detail from another of Dan’s photos at a slightly higher resolution:

I’m interested in how different (less archaic) this representation is than that on RRC 486/1. I wish I could make out the attributes better on the terracotta model.

9 of 234 days: Nemi lake finds

ILL delivered that article I mentioned yesterday on lamps in Lake Nemi, nothing really on coins. But, the authors notice a long period of ritual deposits in the lake itself and they consider this separate from the sanctuary of Diana which has a longer period of use (well into third century CE), whereas lamp deposits seem to concentrated and then taper off in the second century CE. They speculate that the deposits might have been a means of communicating with the underworld. Nevertheless I find it tantalizing that they mention coin finds along with the lamps suggesting the coins were also part of such ritual deposits in the lake. I wondered if the coins were also in Museo delle Navi Romane di Nemi as the lamps were there. I took a ‘tour’ of the museum using snapshots posted on Tripadvisor.

Just one shot of the coin display
Stratigraphic time line. Notice those coins in the republican era!
Hand crank device for bailing bilge water
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Component (reconstruction?) from Caligula’s ships on Lake Nemi, showing the same type of ‘ball bearings’ used in Nero’s revolving dining room

I’m guessing that any coin finds were also published by Cesano (I mentioned her last week) here:

Cesano, S. L. “Scavi di Nemi-le monete.” In G. Ucelli, ed. Le navi di Nemi. Roma, 1940. p. 307-327.

I’ve ILL-ed it.


Yesterday, I sent off Dionysius for editorial feedback. That felt good. I hate how admin/logistics never feels likereal” work. I’m trying how best to prepare for my Rome trip and finally have some firm dates for collecting some more data. I don’t know what it makes most sense to work on until then… Do I start crunching data I already have? Or will that lead me down a primrose path or just make double the work? Perhaps more background reading…

Today

  • First steps on Aes Grave project
  • More Italy visit logistics!
  • More Rutgers coordination !
  • More Princeton coordination !
  • EES coordination!
  • BM communications
  • Follow up old student/tree sunset

Not Today (but maybe tomorrow, or the day after)

  • Teaching requests for Fall 2023
  • Circle back to department about any Jan planning meetings
  • Book flights
  • Set time table for any collaborative RRDP work/publication prep that needs to happen this semester: Chicago pub, INC pub, collaboration with RACOM, etc…
  • Circle back to Capito project
  • Consider ask for funding from Dean’s office
  • Begin Med school rec letter
  • record mini myth
  • find out what is on that v old harddrive and back up to cloud
  • follow up with Lafayette
  • Write up Teaching Eval
  • Rosen Fellowship refs – Jan 16
  • Finalize AAH logistics
  • Cancel at least one more digital membership
  • renew Coinarchives
  • Review grad student apps by Jan 19

8 out of 234 days

…Without trying to decide which of these interpretations is the best, I have stuck to the oldest and most poetic.

original: “Sans chercher à décider laquelle de ces interprétations est la meilleure, je m’en suis tenu à la plus ancienne et la plus poétique.”

This line made me giggle.

Cohen 1857 (link)

This name logic was not only of interest to numismatists in the 19th century, but also to philologists concerns with naming practices (cf. Mowat 1871: 35). Support is derived from the patterns of numerous other nomen and cognomen; the coins are largely used as another epigraphic source.

Continuing with French scholarship I finally came to Babelon. Perhaps wholly unsurprising he is far more thorough and descriptive than any of the others and Grueber seems to owe much to him. There isn’t much new here but it is perhaps the clearest overview.

Why do I keep flogging this dead horse of a coin looking up wrong interpretations of bygone generations? A few reasons. It gets me reading widely and remembering to check various and sundry perspectives and in the past I’ve found my own thinking that seemed new to me, was in fact a resurrection of older ideas (wrongly?) dismissed. But I am getting a little bored of the gens Accoleia as it is taking me too far away from Nemi.

I’ve requested a copy of this article from ILL so hopefully I’ll have something more interesting for a future post.

Diosono, Francesca and Cinaglia, Tiziano. “Light on the water: ritual deposit of lamps in Lake Nemi.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 29, no. 1 (2016): 451-468. Doi: 10.1017/S104775940007224X

Abstract:Following attempts beginning in Renaissance times, in 1927 the decision was taken to lower the level of Lake Nemi to the floor where the hulls of two ships belonging to Caligula lay, using pumps. These operations, conducted between 1928-1932, concluded in 1936 with the opening of the Museo Nazionale delle Navi Romane, where the ships were displayed. The ships were destroyed in 1944. But in addition to the materials belonging to the ships themselves, a number of other materials were gathered from the lake bed, including coins and bronze and terracotta objects. Lamps constitute the majority of these materials. The presence of nearly 250 lamps on the lake bed must be assumed to be due to a deliberate action that was repeated over time. The chronological span of almost all the lamps, from the middle of the 1st to the end of 2nd cent. A.D., is too long to argue for an isolated event. The different types and workshops represented also suggest that we are dealing with an act performed on numerous occasions, for each of which the materials were acquired on the retail market. That characteristic suggests that the lamps featured in an individual ritual practice, ending with their deposition on the waters of the lake.
—-

Yesterday, I tried a more research first, communications second approach to structuring my day. Unfortunately, that meant communications didn’t get moved forward. I regularly overestimate how much I can actually get done. Also, I had to attend a doc appt with a kiddo and that ate up the last 2.5 hours of my day, so maybe I should go a little easier on myself. Started today with a wee walk–any walk is a good walk.

Today

  • Keep up on the Dionysius (sent off to editors!!)
  • More Italy visit logistics!
  • More Rutgers coordination !
  • More Princeton coordination !
  • EES coordination!
  • Local colleague communications
  • push Nemi photo hunt forward
  • JCope filing

Not Today (but maybe tomorrow, or the day after)

  • Teaching requests for Fall 2023
  • Circle back to department about any Jan planning meetings
  • Book flights
  • Set time table for any collaborative RRDP work/publication prep that needs to happen this semester: Chicago pub, INC pub, collaboration with RACOM, etc…
  • Circle back to Capito project
  • Consider ask for funding from Dean’s office
  • Begin Med school rec letter
  • record mini myth
  • find out what is on that v old harddrive and back up to cloud
  • follow up with Lafayette
  • Write up Teaching Eval
  • Follow up old student/tree sunset
  • Rosen Fellowship refs
  • Finalize AAH logistics
  • Cancel at least one more digital membership
  • renew Coinarchives

1 of 234 Days: the work ahead

Creating this blog was such a life-changing experience when I first set it up in June 2013 to trace where the time went. I had deep fears that writing wouldn’t happen and that I couldn’t accomplish what I set out to do. More and different work was accomplished, all of which made the work between then and now richer and more meaningful. I’m excited to see what this period of time brings. I have none of those fears. I know that even if my goals shift and change, I will always be collecting new knowledge and ideas, enough to sustain me for another decade or so.

Practically, what is a sabbatical? I’m given the privilege of working on my research for Spring 2023 (and Spring 2024) in exchange for a 20% pay cut. I’m sad I won’t be at the AIA-SCS, but it isn’t in the cards. I’m calling it a “stay-batical”. I have made a very nice home office for myself and much of the work I want to do can be done right here. I put in some applications to travel for Spring 2024 so hopeful something will come up.

What is the work I hope to do?

I’m finishing footnoting a chapter on Dionysius’ thoughts on the Republican Constitution for an edited volume. That should be off my desk in 1-2 weeks all going well.

I need to crunch data from metallurgical testing of aes grave at Yale and Lafayette and compare with BM results and see if I could fit in another local collection or two before presenting my findings in Rome in mid February. (I also have to sort logistics around that trip.) Logistics need to be done ASAP, but the data crunching is last half of January along with some write up. I don’t think it will take four weeks but I’m allowing it just to be safe.

After that my hope is to keep the calendar nice and clear so as to plow through the edits of single-author Book No. 3. I’d love to have fully revised manuscript by June but that’s a pipe dream I’m sure. Maybe June 2024? We’ll see. Almost all the chapters are drafted. What is needed in intellectual rigor and footnoting. (AND not to get too distracted along the way).

Working Title: Making History: Coins, Texts, and the Late Republic

A richly illustrated exploration of what those living within the Roman republic knew, or thought they knew, about their own past and how they made that past meaningful to their contemporary lives. Chapters: (1) How to Read this Book (2) What Sort of Thing is a King? (3) Numa’s Memory (4) Celebrating Apollo (5) The Cost of Grain (6) Sulla’s Legacy (7) The Opimian Myth (8) A Fashion for Kings (9) After the Ides (10) The Relevance of Ancient History (11) Witnessing the Past (12) Who cared about the coins?

That’s the major stuff, but other things particularly, collaborative work, that may need to come to the foreground and may delay this work here and there.

I also wouldn’t mind writing up some of my Papius and Fabatus stuff for real and perhaps even diving into other thorny control marked issues…

There will also be proofs to review at some point and I really must get to the Nemi material in Nottingham. I hope this year…

More tomorrow..

Undermining the Secret Ballot

Two men of praetorian rank were on the panel—Domitius Calvinus, who voted for acquittal so openly that everybody could see; and Cato, who, as soon as the voting tablets had been counted, withdrew from the ring of people, and was the first to tell Pompey the news.

duo praetorii sederunt, Domitius Calvinus (is aperte absolvit ut omnes viderent) et Cato (is diribitis tabellis de circulo se subduxit et Pompeio primus nuntiavit).

Cic. Q.fr. 3.4.1

In my book there is a whole section in chapter 4 on the secret ballot and voting tablets on coins. Those used in the law courts had two choices: A(bsolvo) or C(ondemno), ‘I absolve’ or ‘I condemn’, or L(ibero) or D(amno), ‘I free’ or ‘I sentence’. What I like about the above passage is that it nicely shows how followers of Pompey the would be autocrat are undermining the anonymity of the ballot to show their partisanship AND that Cicero’s words help confirm the interpretation of what we see on ballots on at least one coin (RRC 428/2) dating to just the year before.

This post relates to the content of the previous one as well.