So the lunate symbol on the oval series aes grave bothers me. I feel sure I’ve blogged about this before but cannot find the notes.
Talking to any number of Italic Language experts (Jay Fisher, Katherine MacDonald among others) there is no way that it is an S standing for Semis. And if that is the case it’s not going to mean 1/2. It’s going to be a numerical symbol. And I think it is most likely the number 5, like V. This would the oval series base-10 not base-12. Anyway, I’ve not had positive evidence to support this BUT I think the marks on the Pisa/Luca Etruscan bronzes are probably good enough evidence to convince most (I hope).
If I’m right about this it would also mean that the Volterra series was also base-10:
and so also Tuder and other Etruscan/N. Italian mints:
Other denomination marks that have more “normal” numerals to our eyes: