Earliest representation of a Groma?!

Listed as unknown symbols by Crawford and others, but correctly identified by Fava.

RRC 412: 59 BCE (so Hersh and Walker and Hollstein)

Notice this depiction uses show two plumbs being used the not four typically used for reconstructions.

Yale specimen
Groma as obverse control mark on BM specimen
Ferramentum as reverse control mark on same BM specimen
The Schaefer Archive documents five specimens of this die pair / control mark pair.
Pin by Kevin Eoghan on Romans | Roman empire map, Ancient rome, Ancient  technology
Uncertain whom to credit for this useful diagram

Below later images from funerary contexts.

Corinth Computer Project: Roman Surveying
Gromatic Images from New Discoveries in Pompeii | SpringerLink
Arachne link

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